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  • Regional developments
    Makombe, Tsitsi; Collins, Julia; Badiane, Ousmane; Breisinger, Clemens; Abdelaziz, Fatma; Khouri, Nadim; Akramov, Kamiljon T.; Park, Allen; Ilyasov, Jarilkasin; Kumar, Anjani; Ahmed, Akhter U.; Davies, Stephen; Joshi, Pramod Kumar; Chen, Kevin Z.; Timmer, Peter; Dawe, David; Díaz-Bonilla, Eugenio; Torero, Máximo. Washington DC: IFPRI. 2017
    Abstract | Full Text
    2016 saw important developments with potentially wide repercussions for food security and nutrition in individual countries and regions. This section offers perspectives on food policy developments across the major regions: Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central Asia, South Asia, East Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Urbanization trends and related impacts on food security and nutrition are presented for each region. The individual regional sections cover many other critical topics: Acceleration of cooperation and investment in Africa to improve food security in the face of climate challenges and low commodity prices; Continuing conflict in the Middle East and North Africa, while some countries begin to face policy reform needs and realities of low oil prices; Central Asia’s promotion of agricultural diversification and regional integration to increase economic resilience; South Asia’s rapid growth and new investments and policies in the agriculture sector; Urbanization, changing diets, and regional growth in East Asia Recession in major economies of Latin America and the Caribbean along with El Niño’s effects on regional prospects.
  • Progress against and nature of the 2013 nutrition for growth comments
    Fanzo, Jessica; Manohar, Shweta; Rosettie, Katherine; Glass, Sara. Washington DC: IFPRI. 2016
    Abstract | Full Text
    ON JUNE 8, 2013, THE GOVERNMENTS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND BRAZIL, AND THE CHILDREN’S INVESTMENT FUND FOUNDATION (CIFF) HOSTED A SUMMIT IN London titled “Nutrition for Growth: Beating Hunger through Business and Science” (known as N4G). The objective of the summit was to mark a “seminal declaration by leaders to scale up political commitment, increase resources, and take urgent action on nutrition” (United Kingdom 2013, 1).
  • Calls to action
    International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Washington DC: IFPRI. 2016
    Abstract | Full Text
    ASSESS PROGRESS AGAINST GLOBAL TARGETS; MAKE SMART COMMITMENTS; ACCELERATE IMPLEMENTATION; ACCELERATE THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE UNDERLYING DRIVERS; FINANCE THE GLOBAL TARGETS; MEASURE PROGRESS AT THE NATIONAL AND SUBNATIONAL LEVEL
  • Taking action: Progress and challenges in implementing nutrition policies and programs
    International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Washington DC: IFPRI. 2016
    Abstract | Full Text
    TO BE EFFECTIVE, COMMITMENTS TO ACTION MUST BE IMPLEMENTED AND ENFORCED. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF POLICIES AND INTERVENTIONS DEPENDS on converting political commitment to practical action. How are governments and other stakeholders doing in implementing policies and interventions that reflect commitment?
  • Measuring progress in attaining targets
    International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Washington DC: IFPRI. 2016
    Abstract | Full Text
    TO GUIDE, TRACK, AND LEARN FROM OUR EFFORTS TO REDUCE MALNUTRITION, WE REQUIRE CREDIBLE, TIMELY, AND USEFUL DATA ON NUTRITION OUTCOMES AND INPUTS. IN THE ERA of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the amount of data available to assess progress in development grew rapidly through formal surveys, administrative data, civil registration, and mobile telephones (UN 2014b; World Bank and WHO 2014).
  • Global Nutrition Report 2016: From Promise to Impact: Ending Malnutrition by 2030
    International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Washington DC: IFPRI. 2016
    Abstract | Full Text
    Few challenges facing the global community today match the scale of malnutrition, a condition that directly affects 1 in 3 people. Malnutrition manifests itself in many different ways: as poor child growth and development; as individuals who are skin and bone or prone to infection; as those who are carrying too much weight or whose blood contains too much sugar, salt, fat, or cholesterol; or those who are deficient in important vitamins or minerals. Malnutrition and diet are by far the biggest risk factors for the global burden of disease: every country is facing a serious public health challenge from malnutrition. The economic consequences represent losses of 11 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) every year in Africa and Asia, whereas preventing malnutrion delivers $16 in returns on investment for every $1 spent. The world’s countries have agreed on targets for nutrition, but despite some progress in recent years the world is off track to reach those targets. This third stocktaking of the state of the world’s nutrition points to ways to reverse this trend and end all forms of malnutrition by 2030.
  • Accelerating the contribution that nutrition's underlying drivers make to nutrition improvements
    International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Washington DC: IFPRI. 2016
    Abstract | Full Text
    THE FOOD, SOCIAL, HEALTH, AND LIVING ENVIRONMENTS IN WHICH PEOPLE MAKE DECISIONS HAVE A HUGE INFLUENCE ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS. For optimal nutrition, these underlying factors matter. For example, the food environment should make healthy diets available, affordable, accessible, and desirable. The social environment should set norms about good nutrition and hygiene and support people in caring for their nutrition and the nutrition of their families.
  • Meeting the need: Financing to attain targets
    International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Washington DC: IFPRI. 2016
    Abstract | Full Text
    COMMITMENT WITHOUT FUNDING REPRESENTS UNFULFILLED GOOD INTENTIONS. IF NUTRITION-PROMOTING ACTIONS ARE TO BE IMPLEMENTED AND TARGETS MET, they need to be financed. Financing for nutrition comes from governments (domestic), from international sources—the bilateral and multilateral aid agencies and foundations that make up the “donor” community—and from people themselves.
  • The new challenge: End all forms of malnutrition by 2030
    International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Washington DC: IFPRI. 2016
    Abstract | Full Text
    It is a formidable challenge. Every country is facing a serious public health challenge from malnutrition (IFPRI 2014). One in three people is malnourished in one form or another (IFPRI 2015a). Malnutrition manifests itself in many forms: as children who do not grow and develop to their full potential, as people who are skin-and-bone or prone to infection, as people who carry too much weight or whose blood contains too much sugar, salt, or cholesterol.
  • The global nutrition landscape: Assessing progress
    International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Washington DC: IFPRI. 2016
    Abstract | Full Text
    AS DISCUSSED IN CHAPTER 1, SETTING TARGETS IS ONE MANIFESTATION OF POLITICAL COMMITMENT. COUNTRIES HAVE ALREADY MADE A SERIES OF COMMITMENTS TO ATTAIN global nutrition targets by 2025 (Panel 2.1). For maternal, infant, and young child nutrition, the 2012 World Health Assembly (WHA) set six targets for 2025. The Global Nutrition Report tracks five of these.1 The WHA also agreed on nine noncommunicable disease (NCD) targets, one of which—“Halt the rise in diabetes and obesity”—is tracked in this report via three indicators. In all, we use eight nutrition status indicators to track six of the targets.
  • Taking aim: Progress on setting nutrition targets
    International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Washington DC: IFPRI. 2016
    Abstract | Full Text
    THROUGH THE WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY (WHA), COUNTRIES HAVE SIGNED ONTO GLOBAL NUTRITION TARGETS, AND AS CHAPTER 2 SHOWS, ONE WAY to track countries’ progress is to apply these global targets to the national level. Yet targets that countries set for themselves are likely to be more effective tools for promoting accountability. By definition, these self-generated targets have greater government buy-in and ownership than those set from outside the country. And these targets are most useful for accountability when they are SMART (that is, specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time bound).
  • Global Nutrition Report 2016: From Promise to Impact: Ending Malnutrition by 2030: Summary
    International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Washington DC: IFPRI. 2016
    Abstract | Full Text
    Few challenges facing the global community today match the scale of malnutrition, a condition that directly affects one in three people. Malnutrition manifests itself in many different ways: as poor child growth and development; as individuals who are skin and bone or prone to infection; as those who are carrying too much weight or who are at risk of chronic diseases because of excess intake of sugar, salt, or fat; or those who are deficient in important vitamins or minerals. Malnutrition and diet are by far the biggest risk factors for the global burden of disease: every country is facing a serious public health challenge from malnutrition. The economic consequences represent losses of 11 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) every year in Africa and Asia, whereas preventing malnutrion delivers $16 in returns on investment for every $1 spent. The world’s countries have agreed on targets for nutrition, but despite some progress in recent years the world is off track to reach those targets. This third stocktaking of the state of the world’s nutrition points to ways to reverse this trend and end all forms of malnutrition by 2030.
  • Nutrition and economic development: Exploring Egypt's exceptionalism and the role of food subsidies: Synopsis
    Ecker, Olivier; Al-Riffai, Perrihan; Breisinger, Clemens; El-Batrawy, Rawia. Washington DC: IFPRI. 2016
    Abstract | Full Text
    Egypt faces two nutritional challenges. The first is the “growth-nutrition disconnect.” High economic growth has not been accompanied by reduction in chronic child malnutrition, at least throughout the 2000s. Instead, the prevalence of child stunting increased during this decade—an atypical trend for a country outside wartime. The second challenge is the simultaneous presence of chronic undernutrition and overnutrition (due to excess consumption of calories). This “double burden of malnutrition” exists not only at the national level but also within families and even individual children. Both challenges are exceptionally pronounced in Egypt compared to other developing countries. Nutrition and Economic Development: Exploring Egypt’s Exceptionalism and the Role of Food Subsidies examines the two nutritional challenges in depth and their relationship to public policy.
  • Nutrition and economic development: Exploring Egypt's exceptionalism and the role of food subsidies
    Ecker, Olivier; Al-Riffai, Perrihan; Breisinger, Clemens; El-Batrawy, Rawia. Washington DC: IFPRI. 2016
    Abstract | Full Text
    This book’s main hypothesis is that Egypt’s large food subsidy system has been ineffective in reducing undernutrition; in fact, it may have contributed to sustaining and even aggravating both nutrition challenges. For a long time, the subsidy system provided only calorie-rich foods, at very low and constant prices and with quotas much above dietary recommendations. This system has created incentives to consume calorie-overladen and unbalanced diets, increasing the risks of child and maternal overnutrition and, at high subsidy levels, the risk of inadequate child nutrition. Moreover, the large public budget allocated to the food subsidies is unavailable for possibly more nutrition-beneficial spending, such as for child and maternal nutrition-specific interventions. The authors’ findings consistently suggest that—in addition to the well-known economic rationale for reforming the Egyptian food subsidy system—there are strong reasons to reform food subsidies due to nutrition and public health concerns. A fundamental food subsidy reform process has been under way since June 2014. The already-implemented changes can be expected to have reduced some incentives for overconsumption and may have positive dietary effects. However, further major reform efforts are needed to transform the current subsidy system into a key policy instrument in the fight against malnutrition. The findings of this book should be valuable to policy makers, analysts, development partners, and others concerned with improving food security and promoting healthy nutrition in Egypt and other developing countries with large social protection programs.
  • 2014 Global hunger index: The challenge of hidden hunger
    von Grebmer, Klaus; Saltzman, Amy; Birol, Ekin; Wiesmann, Doris; Prasai, Nilam; Yin, Sandra; Yohannes, Yisehac; Menon, Purnima; Thompson, Jennifer; Sonntag, Andrea. Washington DC: IFPRI. 2014
    Abstract | Full Text
    With one more year before the 2015 deadline for achieving the Millennium Development Goals, the 2014 Global Hunger Index report offers a multifaceted overview of global hunger that brings new insights to the global debate on where to focus efforts in the fight against hunger and malnutrition. The state of hunger in developing countries as a group has improved since 1990, falling by 39 percent, according to the 2014 GHI. Despite progress made, the level of hunger in the world is still “serious,” with 805 million people continuing to go hungry, according to estimates by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  • Resilience for food security in the face of civil conflict in Yemen
    Ecker, Olivier. Washington DC: IFPRI. 2014
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  • Food security policies for building resilience to conflict
    Breisinger, Clemens; Ecker, Olivier; Maystadt, Jean-François; Trinh Tan, Jean-François; Al-Riffai, Perrihan; Bouzar, Khalida; Sma, Abdelkarim; Abdelgadir, Mohamed. Washington DC: IFPRI. 2014
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  • Regional developments
    Badiane, Ousmane; Makombe, Tsitsi; Collins, Julia; Breisinger, Clemens; Al-Riffai, Perrihan; Ecker, Olivier; Saade, Maurice; Akramov, Kamiljon T.; Cohen-Cline, Noah; Joshi, Pramod Kumar; Kishore, Avinash; Chen, Kevin Z.; Timmer, C. Peter; Díaz-Bonilla, Eugenio; Torero, Máximo. Washington DC: IFPRI. 2014
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  • 2013 Global hunger index : The challenge of hunger : Building resilience to achieve food and nutrition security
    von Grebmer, Klaus; Headey, Derek D.; Olofinbiyi, Tolulope; Wiesmann, Doris; Yin, Sandra; Yohannes, Yisehac; Foley, Connell; von Oppeln, Constanze; Iseli, Bettina; Béné, Christophe; Haddad, Lawrence James. Washington DC: IFPRI. 2013
    Abstract | Full Text
    The 2013 Global Hunger Index (GHI), which reflects data from the period 2008-2012, shows that global hunger has improved since 1990, falling by one-third. Despite the progress made, the level of hunger in the world remains “serious,” with 870 million people going hungry, according to estimates by the Food and Agriculture Organiza­tion of the United Nations.Across regions and countries, GHI scores vary considerably. South Asia and Africa south of the Sahara are home to the highest GHI scores. South Asia significantly lowered its GHI score between 1990 and 1995, mainly thanks to a large decline in underweight in children, but was not able to maintain its fast progress. Social inequality and the low nutritional, educational, and social status of women continue to contrib­ute to the high prevalence of underweight in children under five. Africa south of the Sahara did not advance as much as South Asia in the 1990s. Since the turn of the millennium, however, Africa south of the Sahara has shown real progress, and its GHI score is now lower than South Asia’s. More political stability in countries earlier affect­ed by civil wars in the 1990s and 2000s meant economic growth could resume. Advances in the fight against HIV and AIDS, a decrease in the prevalence of malaria, and higher immunization rates contributed to a reduction in child mortality. Since 1990, 23 countries made significant progress, reducing their GHI scores by 50 percent or more. Twenty-seven countries moved out of the “extremely alarming” and “alarming” categories. In terms of absolute progress, the top ten countries in terms of improvements in GHI scores since 1990 were Angola, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Niger, Rwanda, Thailand, and Vietnam.
  • 2012 Global hunger index
    von Grebmer, Klaus; Ringler, Claudia; Rosegrant, Mark W.; Olofinbiyi, Tolulope; Wiesmann, Doris; Fritschel, Heidi; Badiane, Ousmane; Torero, Maximo; Yohannes, Yisehac; Thompson, Jennifer; von Oppeln, Constanze; Rahall, Joseph. Washington DC: IFPRI. 2012
    Abstract | Full Text
    World hunger, according to the 2012 Global Hunger Index (GHI), has declined somewhat since 1990 but remains “serious.” The global average masks dramatic differences among regions and countries. Regionally, the highest GHI scores are in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. South Asia reduced its GHI score significantly between 1990 and 1996—mainly by reducing the share of underweight children— but could not maintain this rapid progress. Though Sub-Saharan Africa made less progress than South Asia in the 1990s, it has caught up since the turn of the millennium, with its 2012 GHI score falling below that of South Asia. From the 1990 GHI to the 2012 GHI, 15 countries reduced their scores by 50 percent or more. In terms of absolute progress, between the 1990 GHI and the 2012 GHI, Angola, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Malawi, Nicaragua, Niger, and Vietnam saw the largest improvements in their scores. Twenty countries still have levels of hunger that are “extremely alarming” or “alarming.” Most of the countries with alarming GHI scores are in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (the 2012 GHI does not, however, reflect the recent crisis in the Horn of Africa, which intensified in 2011, or the uncertain food situation in the Sahel). Two of the three countries with extremely alarming 2012 GHI scores—Burundi and Eritrea—are in Sub-Saharan Africa; the third country with an extremely alarming score is Haiti. Its GHI score fell by about one quarter from 1990 to 2001, but most of this improvement was reversed in subsequent years. The devastating January 2010 earthquake, although not yet fully captured by the 2012 GHI because of insufficient availability of recent data, pushed Haiti back into the category of “extremely alarming.” In contrast to recent years, the Democratic Republic of Congo is not listed as “extremely alarming,” because insufficient data are available to calculate the country’s GHI score. Current and reliable data are urgently needed to appraise the situation in the country.

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