Briefs and Factsheets


Briefs and Factsheets

     Nutrition and economic development: Exploring Egypt's exceptionalism and the role of food subsidies: Synopsis

Ecker, Olivier; Al-Riffai, Perrihan; Breisinger, Clemens; El-Batrawy, Rawia 2016
Egypt faces two nutritional challenges. The first is the “growth-nutrition disconnect.” High economic growth has not been accompanied by reduction in chronic child malnutrition, at least throughout the 2000s. Instead, the prevalence of child stunting increased during this decade—an atypical trend for a country outside wartime. The second challenge is the simultaneous presence of chronic undernutrition and overnutrition (due to excess consumption of calories). This “double burden of malnutrition” exists not only at the national level but also within families and even individual children. Both challenges are exceptionally pronounced in Egypt compared to other developing countries. Nutrition and Economic Development: Exploring Egypt’s Exceptionalism and the Role of Food Subsidies examines the two nutritional challenges in depth and their relationship to public policy.

     2015 Nutrition subregion profile: Northern Africa

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2015
The subregion profiles capture the status and progress of all countries within the region, and the 80+ indicators include a wealth of information on child, adolescent and adult anthropometry and nutritional status, in addition to intervention coverage, food supply, economics, and demography. This tool is particularly useful for nutrition champions at the country-level, as it presents a wide range of evidence needed to assess country progress in improving nutrition and nutrition-related outcomes.

     2015 Nutrition country profile: Morocco

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2015
The 193 individual country profiles capture the status and progress of all UN Member States, and the 80+ indicators include a wealth of information on child, adolescent and adult anthropometry and nutritional status, in addition to intervention coverage, food supply, economics, and demography. This tool is particularly useful for nutrition champions at the country-level, as it presents a wide range of evidence needed to assess country progress in improving nutrition and nutrition-related outcomes.

     2015 Nutrition country profile: Iran

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2015
The 193 individual country profiles capture the status and progress of all UN Member States, and the 80+ indicators include a wealth of information on child, adolescent and adult anthropometry and nutritional status, in addition to intervention coverage, food supply, economics, and demography. This tool is particularly useful for nutrition champions at the country-level, as it presents a wide range of evidence needed to assess country progress in improving nutrition and nutrition-related outcomes.

     2015 Nutrition country profile: Syrian Arab Republic

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2015
The 193 individual country profiles capture the status and progress of all UN Member States, and the 80+ indicators include a wealth of information on child, adolescent and adult anthropometry and nutritional status, in addition to intervention coverage, food supply, economics, and demography. This tool is particularly useful for nutrition champions at the country-level, as it presents a wide range of evidence needed to assess country progress in improving nutrition and nutrition-related outcomes.

     2015 Nutrition country profile: Tunisia

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2015
The 193 individual country profiles capture the status and progress of all UN Member States, and the 80+ indicators include a wealth of information on child, adolescent and adult anthropometry and nutritional status, in addition to intervention coverage, food supply, economics, and demography. This tool is particularly useful for nutrition champions at the country-level, as it presents a wide range of evidence needed to assess country progress in improving nutrition and nutrition-related outcomes.

     2015 Nutrition country profile: Iraq

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2015
The 193 individual country profiles capture the status and progress of all UN Member States, and the 80+ indicators include a wealth of information on child, adolescent and adult anthropometry and nutritional status, in addition to intervention coverage, food supply, economics, and demography. This tool is particularly useful for nutrition champions at the country-level, as it presents a wide range of evidence needed to assess country progress in improving nutrition and nutrition-related outcomes.

      2015 Nutrition country profile: Bahrain

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2015
The 193 individual country profiles capture the status and progress of all UN Member States, and the 80+ indicators include a wealth of information on child, adolescent and adult anthropometry and nutritional status, in addition to intervention coverage, food supply, economics, and demography. This tool is particularly useful for nutrition champions at the country-level, as it presents a wide range of evidence needed to assess country progress in improving nutrition and nutrition-related outcomes.

     2015 Nutrition country profile: Egypt

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2015
The 193 individual country profiles capture the status and progress of all UN Member States, and the 80+ indicators include a wealth of information on child, adolescent and adult anthropometry and nutritional status, in addition to intervention coverage, food supply, economics, and demography. This tool is particularly useful for nutrition champions at the country-level, as it presents a wide range of evidence needed to assess country progress in improving nutrition and nutrition-related outcomes.

     Egypt: Agricultural R&D indicators factsheet

Stads, Gert-Jan; Moussa, Hoda; Badwan, Raed 2015
This country factsheet presents key agricultural R&D indicators in a highly accessible visual display. The publication also feature a more in-depth analysis of some of the key challenges that the country’s agricultural R&D system is facing, and the policy options to address these challenges.

     2015 Nutrition country profile: Libya

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2015
The 193 individual country profiles capture the status and progress of all UN Member States, and the 80+ indicators include a wealth of information on child, adolescent and adult anthropometry and nutritional status, in addition to intervention coverage, food supply, economics, and demography. This tool is particularly useful for nutrition champions at the country-level, as it presents a wide range of evidence needed to assess country progress in improving nutrition and nutrition-related outcomes.

     Tunisia: Agricultural R&D indicators factsheet

Stads, Gert-Jan; Ben Rayana, Aniss; Berrbeh, Jamel; Laroussi, Ahlem; Badwan, Raed 2015
This country factsheet presents key agricultural R&D indicators in a highly accessible visual display. The publication also feature a more in-depth analysis of some of the key challenges that the country’s agricultural R&D system is facing, and the policy options to address these challenges.

      2015 Nutrition country profile: Algeria

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2015
The 193 individual country profiles capture the status and progress of all UN Member States, and the 80+ indicators include a wealth of information on child, adolescent and adult anthropometry and nutritional status, in addition to intervention coverage, food supply, economics, and demography. This tool is particularly useful for nutrition champions at the country-level, as it presents a wide range of evidence needed to assess country progress in improving nutrition and nutrition-related outcomes.

     2015 Nutrition country profile: Yemen

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2015
The 193 individual country profiles capture the status and progress of all UN Member States, and the 80+ indicators include a wealth of information on child, adolescent and adult anthropometry and nutritional status, in addition to intervention coverage, food supply, economics, and demography. This tool is particularly useful for nutrition champions at the country-level, as it presents a wide range of evidence needed to assess country progress in improving nutrition and nutrition-related outcomes.

     2014 Nutrition country profile: Syrian Arab Republic

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2014

     Jordan: Agricultural R&D Indicators Factsheet

Stads, Gert-Jan; Alrusheidat, Jamal; Badwan, Raed; Rahija, Michael 2014

     Lebanon: Agricultural R&D Indicators Factsheet

Stads, Gert-Jan; Khoudoud, Abir Abul; Badwan, Raed; Rahija, Michael 2014

     2014 Nutrition country profile: Lebanon

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2014

     2014 Nutrition country profile: Bahrain

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2014

     2014 Nutrition country profile: Morocco

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2014

     Building resilience to conflict through food security policies and programs: An overview

Breisinger, Clemens; Ecker, Olivier; Maystadt, Jean-François; Trinh Tan, Jean-François; Al-Riffai, Perrihan; Bouzar, Khalida; Sma, Abdelkarim; Abdelgadir, Mohamed 2014
One and a half billion people still live in fragile, conflict affected areas. People in these countries are about twice as likely to be malnourished and to die during infancy as people in other developing countries.2 This outcome is often a direct consequence of conflict: conflict reduces food availability by destroying agricultural assets and infrastructure.

     Building resilience for food and nutrition security in the context of civil conflict: Experiences from rural development programs in Yemen

Ecker, Olivier 2014

     2014 Nutrition country profile: Yemen

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2014

     2014 Nutrition country profile: Algeria

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2014

     2014 Nutrition country profile: Iraq

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2014

     2014 Nutrition country profile: Iran

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2014

     Synopsis of 2014 Global hunger index: The challenge of hidden hunger

von Grebmer, Klaus; Saltzman, Amy; Birol, Ekin; Wiesmann, Doris; Prasai, Nilam; Yin, Sandra; Yohannes, Yisehac; Menon, Purnima; Thompson, Jennifer; Sonntag, Andrea 2014
The 2014 Global Hunger Index (GHI) report—the ninth in an annual series—presents a multidimensional measure of national, regional, and global hunger. It shows that the world has made progress in reducing hunger since 1990, but still has far to go, with levels of hunger remaining “alarming” or “extremely alarming” in 16 countries. This year’s report focuses on a critical aspect of hunger that is often overlooked: hidden hunger. Also known as micronutrient deficiency, hidden hunger affects more than an estimated 2 billion people globally. The repercussions of these vitamin and mineral deficiencies are both serious and long-lasting. Where hidden hunger has taken root, it not only prevents people from surviving and thriving as productive members of society, it also holds countries back in a cycle of poor nutrition, poor health, lost productivity, persistent poverty, and reduced economic growth.

     2014 Nutrition country profile: Egypt

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2014

     Algeria: Agricultural R&D Indicators Factsheet

Stads, Gert-Jan; Alt-Oubelli, M'hamed; Badwan, Raed 2014

     2014 Nutrition country profile: Jordan

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2014

     2014 Nutrition country profile: Tunisia

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2014

     2014 Nutrition country profile: Libya

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2014

     Morocco: Agricultural R&D Indicators Factsheet

Stads, Gert-Jan; Albalghitti, Abdelouahad; Badwan, Raed 2014

     Yemen: Agricultural R&D Indicators Factsheet

Stads, Gert-Jan; Alsharjabi, Khalil; Badwan, Raed; Aljurmuzi, Maen; Rahija, Michael 2014

     Tackling Egypt’s rising food insecurity in a time of transition

Breisinger, Clemens; Al-Riffai, Perrihan; Ecker, Olivier; Abuismail, Riham; Waite, Jane; Abdelwahab, Noura; Zohery, Alaa; El-Laithy, Heba; Armanious, Dina 2013
Owing to a succession of crises and worsening poverty, food security in Egypt started to deteriorate as early as 2005. These crises included the avian influenza epidemic in 2006; the food, fuel, and financial crises of 2007-2009; a further rallying of global food prices starting in late 2010; and the challenging macroeconomic context that followed political instability in the wake of the 2011 revolution (see Figure 1). Egypt’s net food-importing status (that includes importing 45-55 percent of its wheat needs) makes it vulnerable to fluctuations in international food prices.

     2013 Global hunger index : The challenge of hunger : Building resilience to achieve food and nutrition security

von Grebmer, Klaus; Headey, Derek D.; Olofinbiyi, Tolulope; Wiesmann, Doris; Yin, Sandra; Yohannes, Yisehac; Foley, Connell; von Oppeln, Constanze; Iseli, Bettina; Béné, Christophe; Haddad, Lawrence James 2013
The 2013 Global Hunger Index (GHI) report-the eighth in an annual series- presents a multidimensional measure of national, regional, and global hunger. It shows that the world has made some progress in reducing hunger since 1990, but still has far to go. The 2013 GHI report focuses on resilience in theory and in practice. The relief and development communities have long struggled to understand why some people fare better than others when confronting stresses or shocks. Given that world hunger remains “serious” according to the index, resilience-building efforts are much needed to help poor and vulnerable people cope with hunger seasons, droughts, and other natural and manmade disasters both short-term and long-term. Building resilience will involve boosting food and nutrition security. In order to achieve that goal, the humanitarian and development communities must work together.

     2012 Global hunger index

von Grebmer, Klaus; Ringler, Claudia; Rosegrant, Mark W.; Olofinbiyi, Tolulope; Wiesmann, Doris; Fritschel, Heidi; Badiane, Ousmane; Torero, Maximo; Yohannes, Yisehac; Thompson, Jennifer; von Oppeln, Constanze; Rahall, Joseph 2012
The 2012 Global Hunger Index (GHI) report—the seventh in an annual series—presents a multidimensional measure of global, regional, and national hunger. It shows that progress in reducing the proportion of hungry people in the world has been tragically slow. According to the index, hunger on a global scale remains “serious.” The 2012 GHI report also focuses particularly on how to ensure sustainable food security under conditions of land, water, and energy stress. The stark reality is that the world needs to produce more food with fewer resources, while eliminating wasteful practices and policies.

     Economics of the Arab awakening

Breisinger, Clemens; Ecker, Olivier; Al-Riffai, Perrihan 2011
Few observers would have predicted the dramatic changes over the past few months in the Arab world. Arab governments appeared to be in tight control, and many Arab economies were growing around or above the world average over the past few years. Annual growth rates in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, and Sudan averaged more than 6 percent between 2005 and 2010; and Syria, Tunisia, and Libya grew at about 5 percent on average during the same period of time. Official poverty rates in most Arab countries are lower than in many Asian and Latin American countries. However, experts have long identified slow progress in economic diversification and job creation, social inequalities, and persistent food insecurity as major development challenges for Arab countries. Did these factors and, more broadly, people’s dissatisfaction with their living standards contribute to the recent uprisings? At first glance, the sudden turn of events and the generally low coverage, quality, and accessibility of data in the Arab world make it difficult to find answers to this question. By looking beyond more conventional data, however, this policy brief provides some insights into the potential role of economics in the ongoing uprisings. It also reviews major policy responses of Arab governments and provides a new narrative of Arab development that is based on inclusive economic transformation, food security, and decisionmaking.

     Syria

Beintema, Nienke M.; Jamal, Majd; Mwafak, Mohammad 2006

     Jordan

Beintema, Nienke M.; Fardous, Abdel Nabi; Alrusheidat, Jamal 2006

     Tunisia

Stads, Gert-Jan; Allani, Samira; Mounir Hedri, Mohamed 2006

     Morocco

Stads, Gert-Jan; Kissi, Ali 2005

     Sudan

Beintema, Nienke M.; Faki, Hamid H. M. 2003

     Weighing what's practical

Ahmed, Akhter U.; Bouis, Howarth E. 2002
Despite achieving a significant cost reduction over the past two decades, the absolute cost of food subsidies in Egypt is still high relative to the benefits received by the poor. There is scope for better targeting food subsidies, in particular those for rationed cooking oil and sugar, both because reforms in this area are perceived to be far less politically sensitive than adjusting subsidy policies for bread and wheat flour and because higher income groups presently receive a significant percentage of the benefits. Targeting the high-subsidy green ration cards to the poor and the low-subsidy red ration cards to the nonpoor will require identification of both poor and nonpoor households. An International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) research team in Egypt, in collaboration with the Egyptian Ministry of Trade and Supply, developed a proxy means test for targeting ration cards. This paper describes the process of moving from the optimal income-predicting model to the final model that was both administratively and politically feasible. An ex-ante evaluation of the levels of accuracy of the proxy means testing model indicates that the model performs quite well in predicting the needy and nonneedy households. An effective and full implementation of this targeting method would increase the equity in the ration card food subsidy system and, at the same time, lower the total budgetary costs of rationed food subsidies. Moreover, the experience gained under this reform would facilitate targeting future social interventions to reduce and prevent poverty in Egypt.

     Banking on the poor

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 2002
This policy brief is designed to help policymakers and practitioners understand the financial services needed by the poor. It is framed within lessons learned from a five-year IFPRI research program that examined, among other issues, the roles government should play in providing financial services to meet the needs of the poor. Insights presented here are based on a series of detailed household surveys conducted in nine countries of Africa and Asia: Bangladesh, Cameroon, China, Egypt, Ghana, Madagascar, Malawi, Nepal, and Pakistan.... [The brief asks us to consider these questions:] What kinds of financial services do the poor value? What economic activities are the poor engaged in, and what implications does this have for the type of services to be provided? What are existing sources of financial services, and how do the poor use them? What combination of financial instruments—credit, savings, insurance — are best developed, given specific demand from different types of clients? Do delivery systems (credit union, village banking, group-based lending) take into account the prevailing socioeconomic environments or local organizational systems? What unconventional methods do the poor use to secure loans? Can these collateral substitutes be used within a more formalized banking system? In the lending or granting of public resources, are incentives in place to encourage competitive, sustainable, efficient, and entrepreneurial microfinance institutions? Are regulations in place that govern mutually supportive transactions between the clients (borrowers) and institutions (lenders), such as deposit insurance and contract enforcement? Are prudential regulations, such as accounting practices and reporting requirements, balanced so that they ensure sustainability, good management, and accountability of microfinance institutions without stifling innovation? Would the introduction or expansion of microfinance services in a region be one of the most socially cost-effective ways to alleviate poverty there, given the state of infrastructure and markets, the availability of services, and the existence of other antipoverty and development programs in the region?" -- Text

     Dietary diversity as a food security indicator

Hoddinott, John F.; Yohannes, Yisehac 2002
Household food security is an important measure of well-being. Although it may not encapsulate all dimensions of poverty, the inability of households to obtain access to enough food for an active, healthy life is surely an important component of their poverty. Accordingly, devising an appropriate measure of food security outcomes is useful in order to identify the food insecure, assess the severity of their food shortfall, characterize the nature of their insecurity (for example, seasonal versus chronic), predict who is most at risk of future hunger, monitor changes in circumstances, and assess the impact of interventions. However, obtaining detailed data on food security status—such as 24- hour recall data on caloric intakes—can be time consuming and expensive and require a high level of technical skill both in data collection and analysis. This paper examines whether an alternative indicator, dietary diversity, defined as the number of unique foods consumed over a given period of time, provides information on household food security. It draws on data from 10 countries (India, the Philippines, Mozambique, Mexico, Bangladesh, Egypt, Mali, Malawi, Ghana, and Kenya) that encompass both poor and middle-income countries, rural and urban sectors, data collected in different seasons, and data on calories acquisition obtained using two different methods. ....[D]ietary diversity would appear to show promise as a means of measuring food security and monitoring changes and impact, particularly when resources available for such measurement are scarce.

     Avoiding chronic and transitory poverty

Haddad, Lawrence James; Ahmed, Akhter U. 2002
This paper uses a panel data of 347 households in Egypt to measure changes in household consumption between 1997 and 1999 and to identify causes behind the changes. Per capita consumption decreased for the households during this time and, while not dramatic, it occurred at all points along the distribution. Over the two-year period, the number of households that fell into poverty was over twice as large as the number of households that climbed out of poverty. About two-thirds of overall poverty was chronic (average consumption over time was below the poverty line), and almost half of all poor were always poor. We use quantile regression methods to identify the factors that explain total, chronic, and transitory poverty. While our analysis ably documents the extent of transitory poverty, it does not explain well the determinants of this type of poverty. The predominantly chronic nature of poverty in the sample, and our ability to identify associated characteristics, strengthens the case for targeting antipoverty interventions such as food subsidies.

     The determinants of employment status in Egypt

Assaad, Ragui; El-Hamidi, Fatma; Ahmed, Akhter U. 2000
Egyptian labor market is moving from a period of high overall unemployment to one where unemployment is increasingly concentrated among specific groups whose access to the private-sector labor market is limited. Educated young women are more adversely affected than their male counterparts by the transition to a private-sector-led economy. There is no systematic link between youth unemployment among new entrants and poverty unless it is the head of the household who is unemployed. An economic policy environment that is favorable for labor-intensive, export-oriented industries would help absorb the new entrants into the labor market, and the prospect is particularly good for young female workers. Policymakers should consider a reduction in the female-specific employer mandates (such as the existing provision for a generous maternity leave) that raise the cost of hiring women.

     The political economy of food subsidy reform in Egypt

Gutner, Tamar 1999

     Wheat policy reform in Egypt

Kherallah, Mylene; Lofgren, Hans; Gruhn, Peter; Reeder, Meyra M. 1999

     Determinants of poverty in Egypt, 1997

Datt, Gaurav; Jolliffe, Dean 1999

     Middle East water conflicts and directions for conflict resolution

Wolf, Aaron T. 1996
In looking toward 2020, one of the most severe problems to be faced is an impending shortage of adequate supplies of fresh water essential for drinking and for growing crops. The Middle East, where a few waterways serve large areas of land belonging to a number of nations, is the place where strife over water is most likely to erupt. This paper examines the past--how water in the Middle East came to be divided as it is today--and looks at possible solutions for alleviating a water crisis and the resulting political tensions.

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